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Referát Jazyk a písmo

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Oblasť:Gramatika

Autor: antiskola@antiskola.eu

Počet slov:221

Počet písmen:1,328

Jazyk:Slovenský jazyk

Orient. počet strán A4:0.74

Počet zobrazení / stiahnutí:5482 / 230

Veľkosť:1.53 kB

Jazyk a písmo


Jazyk je zložitý systém dorozumievacích prostriedkov. Každý jazyk má svoje zákonitosti aj vo výslovnosti. Vystihnút výslovnost jednotlivých hlások a zapísat ich našimi hláskami nie je preto jednoduché. V slovníkoch sa výslovnost zapisuje medzinárodne dohodnutými písmenami.
Ludia sa v minulosti dorozumievali najprv znakmi, alebo pomocou uzlového písma kipu. Bola to palica, na ktorú sa naviazali rôzne stuhy vyjadrujúce zlato, vojsko, zrno apod. Poznáme osem hlavných písem:
Klinové – Sumeri kreslili obrázky do mäkkej hliny zahrotenou trstinou. písali z hora dole, neskôr z lava doprava. Hrot trstiny mal klinovitý tvar.
Hieroglify – boli vytvorené v 4. tisícrocí pred Kristom. Bolo to písmo starých Egyptanov . Z hieroglifov sa vyvinulo hieratické písmo v 9. storocí pred naším letopoctom.
Fenické – Fénicania vytvorili fénické písmo. Obsahovalo dvadsat dva písmen, ale len spoluhlások.
Grécke – alfabeta – pomenované podla prvých dvoch písmen gréckej abecedy alfy a bety sa aj nazvala abeceda alfabeta. Vznikla v 9. a 8. storocí pred Kristom. Má 24 písmen a aj samohlásky, preto hovoríme, že gréci písmo vokalizovali.
Latinka, hlaholika a azbuka – latinka vznikla v 7. storocí. Dá sa povedat, že je to abeceda, ktorú používame dnes. Používa ju vela európskych národov. naši predkovia po latinke mali prvý jazyk hlaholiku, ktorú zostavil Konštantín. Po smrti Konštantína na jeho pocest sa písmo nazvalo cyrilika. Z neho vznikla azbuka.


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